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As well as seeking greater political rights and an improvement for the condition of workers, Garvey was also a prominent Pan-Africanist and proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement.

Despite occasional persecution, Rastafari grew to become an established faith on the island, later spreading abroad. The Great Depression of the s hit Jamaica hard.

As part of the British West Indian labour unrest of —39 , Jamaica saw numerous strikes, culminating in a strike in that turned into a full-blown riot.

Jamaica slowly gained increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. In it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies , a federation of several of Britain's Caribbean colonies.

Bustamante, at the age of 78, became the country's first prime minister. In the Jamaican general election , the JLP were victorious again, winning 33 out of 53 seats, with the PNP taking 20 seats.

In terms of foreign policy Jamaica became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement , seeking to retain strong ties with Britain and the United States whilst also developing links with Communist states such as Cuba.

The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor, many of whom ended up living in crime-ridden shanty towns in Kingston.

The PNP won 37 seats to the JLP's Manley's government enacted various social reforms, such as a higher minimum wage , land reform, legislation for women's equality, greater housing construction and an increase in educational provision.

In , the PNP won another landslide, winning 47 seats to the JLP's The turnout was a very high 85 percent.

The largest and third-largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa , closed; and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan.

There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy. The PNP went on to win a string of elections, under Prime Ministers Michael Manley — , P.

Patterson — and Portia Simpson-Miller — In the Jamaican general election , Patterson led the PNP to victory, winning 52 seats to the JLP's eight seats.

Patterson also won the Jamaican general election , by another landslide margin of 50 seats to the JLP's 10 seats.

Patterson stepped down on 26 February , and was replaced by Portia Simpson-Miller , Jamaica's first female Prime Minister. The turnout slowly declined during this period of time, from During this period various economic reforms were introduced, such as deregulating the finance sector and floating the Jamaican dollar, as well as greater investment in infrastructure, whilst also retaining a strong social safety net.

In the PNP were defeated by the JLP by a narrow margin of 32 seats to 28, with a turnout of Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century.

The number of seats had been increased to 63, and the PNP swept to power with a landslide 42 seats to the JLP's The voter turnout was Holness's JLP won the general election narrowly, defeating Simpson-Miller's PNP, on 25 February.

The PNP won 31 seats to the JLP's As a result, Simpson-Miller became Opposition Leader for a second time.

In the general election , Andrew Holness made history for the JLP by accomplishing a second consecutive win for the Jamaica Labour Party, winning 49 seats to 14 won by the PNP, led this time by Peter Phillips politician.

The last time a consecutive win occurred for the JLP was in Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.

All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their reserve powers for use in certain constitutional crisis situations.

The position of the monarch has been a matter of continuing debate in Jamaica for many years; currently both major political parties are committed to transitioning to a republic with a president.

Jamaica's current constitution was drafted in by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, of the United Kingdom parliament , which gave Jamaica independence.

The Parliament of Jamaica is bicameral , consisting of the House of Representatives Lower House and the Senate Upper House.

Members of the House known as Members of Parliament or MPs are directly elected, and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the governor-general's best judgement, is best able to command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the governor-general to be the prime minister.

Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general.

The Judiciary of Jamaica operates on a common law system derived from English law and Commonwealth of Nations precedents. Jamaica has traditionally had a two-party system , with power often alternating between the People's National Party PNP and Jamaica Labour Party JLP.

There are also several minor parties who have yet to gain a seat in parliament; the largest of these is the National Democratic Movement NDM.

Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes , which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative relevance. In the context of local government the parishes are designated "Local Authorities".

These local authorities are further styled as "Municipal Corporations", which are either city municipalities or town municipalities.

The local governments of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrew Municipal Corporation. The newest city municipality created is the Municipality of Portmore in While it is geographically located within the parish of St.

Catherine, it is governed independently. The Jamaica Defence Force JDF is the small but professional military force of Jamaica. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending on the arm of service.

Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at Up Park Camp or JDF Training Depot, Newcastle, both in St. As with the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks.

Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. The JDF is directly descended from the British Army's West India Regiment formed during the colonial era.

Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in World War II.

The West Indies Regiment was reformed in as part of the West Indies Federation , after dissolution of the Federation the JDF was established.

The Jamaica Defence Force JDF comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit.

The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the JDF Air Wing National Reserve. The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations.

The role of the support battalion is to provide support to boost numbers in combat and issue competency training in order to allow for the readiness of the force.

In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force JCF , in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world.

JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role.

In early , an Opposition leader, Edward Seaga , called for the merger of the JDF and JCF. This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens.

Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean. Mountains dominate the interior: the Don Figuerero, Santa Cruz, and May Day mountains in the west, the Dry Harbour Mountains in the centre, and the John Crow Mountains and Blue Mountains in the east, the latter containing Blue Mountain Peak , Jamaica's tallest mountain at 2, m.

Kingston Harbour is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world, [98] which contributed to the city being designated as the capital in Tourist attractions include Dunn's River Falls in St.

Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue Lagoon in Portland , believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano [ citation needed ] , and Port Royal , site of a major earthquake in that helped form the island's Palisadoes tombolo.

Among the variety of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are dry and wet limestone forests, rainforest, riparian woodland, wetlands, caves, rivers, seagrass beds and coral reefs.

The authorities have recognised the tremendous significance and potential of the environment and have designated some of the more 'fertile' areas as 'protected'.

Among the island's protected areas are the Cockpit Country , Hellshire Hills , and Litchfield forest reserves. In , Jamaica's first marine park, covering nearly 15 square kilometres 5.

Portland Bight Protected Area was designated in There are several small islands off Jamaica's coast, most notably those in Portland Bight such as Pigeon Island , Salt Island , Dolphin Island , Long Island , Great Goat Island and Little Goat Island , and also Lime Cay located further east.

The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although higher inland regions are more temperate.

Jamaica lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic Ocean and because of this, the island sometimes suffers significant storm damage.

In the s decade , hurricanes Ivan , Dean , and Gustav also brought severe weather to the island. Jamaica's climate is tropical, supporting diverse ecosystems with a wealth of plants and animals.

Its plant life has changed considerably over the centuries; when the Spanish arrived in , except for small agricultural clearings, the country was deeply forested.

The European settlers cut down the great timber trees for building and ships' supplies, and cleared the plains, savannas, and mountain slopes for intense agricultural cultivation.

Jamaica is home to about 3, species of native flowering plants of which over 1, are endemic and are species of orchid , thousands of species of non-flowering flora, and about 20 botanical gardens , some of which are several hundred years old.

Cactus and similar dry-area plants are found along the south and southwest coastal area. Parts of the west and southwest consist of large grasslands, with scattered stands of trees.

Jamaica is home to three terrestrial ecoregions , the Jamaican moist forests , Jamaican dry forests , and Greater Antilles mangroves.

It had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5. Jamaican's fauna, typical of the Caribbean , includes highly diversified wildlife with many endemic species.

As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are mostly several species of bats of which at least three endemic species are found only in Cockpit Country , one of which is at-risk.

Other species of bat include the fig-eating and hairy-tailed bats. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica is the Jamaican hutia , locally known as the coney.

Jamaica is also home to about 50 species of reptiles, [] the largest of which is the American crocodile ; however, it is only present within the Black River and a few other areas.

Lizards such as anoles , iguanas and snakes such as racers and the Jamaican boa the largest snake on the island , are common in areas such as the Cockpit Country.

None of Jamaica's eight species of native snakes is venomous. Jamaica is home to about species of birds of which 27 are endemic including the endangered black-Billed parrots and the Jamaican blackbird , both of which are only found in Cockpit Country.

It is also the indigenous home to four species of hummingbirds three of which are found nowhere else in the world : the black-billed streamertail , the Jamaican mango , the Vervain hummingbird , and red-billed streamertails.

The red-billed streamertail, known locally as the "doctor bird", is Jamaica's National Symbol. One species of freshwater turtle is native to Jamaica, the Jamaican slider.

It is found only on Jamaica and on a few islands in the Bahamas. In addition, many types of frogs are common on the island, especially treefrogs.

Beautiful and exotic birds, such as the can be found among a large number of others. Jamaican waters contain considerable resources of fresh-and saltwater fish.

Fish that occasionally enter freshwater and estuarine environments include snook , jewfish , mangrove snapper , and mullets.

Fish that spend the majority of their lives in Jamaica's fresh waters include many species of livebearers , killifish , freshwater gobies , the mountain mullet, and the American eel.

Tilapia have been introduced from Africa for aquaculture, and are very common. Also visible in the waters surrounding Jamaica are dolphins, parrotfish , and the endangered manatee.

Insects and other invertebrates are abundant, including the world's largest centipede, the Amazonian giant centipede.

Jamaica is the home to about species of butterflies and moths, including 35 indigenous species and 22 subspecies.

It is also the native home to the Jamaican swallowtail , the western hemisphere's largest butterfly. Coral reef ecosystems are important because they provide people with a source of livelihood, food, recreation, and medicinal compounds and protect the land on which they live.

However, the marine life in Jamaica is also being affected. There could be many factors that contribute to marine life not having the best health.

Jamaica's geological origin, topographical features and seasonal high rainfall make it susceptible to a range of natural hazards that can affect the coastal and oceanic environments.

These include storm surge, slope failures landslides , earthquakes, floods and hurricanes. The ocean connects all the countries all over the world, however, everyone and everything is affecting the flow and life in the ocean.

Jamaica is a very touristy place specifically because of their beaches. If their oceans are not functioning at their best then the well-being of Jamaica and the people who live there will start to deteriorate.

Pollution comes from run-off, sewage systems, and garbage. However, this typically all ends up in the ocean after there is rain or floods.

Everything that ends up in the water changes the quality and balance of the ocean. Poor coastal water quality has adversely affected fisheries, tourism and mariculture, as well as undermining biological sustainability of the living resources of ocean and coastal habitats.

Some of the imports that go into Jamaica include petroleum and petroleum products. Issues include accidents at sea; risk of spills through local and international transport of petroleum and petroleum products.

Oil and water do not mix. Unfortunately oil spills is not the only form of pollution that occurs in Jamaica. Solid waste disposal mechanisms in Jamaica are currently inadequate.

Solid waste is also harmful to wildlife, particularly birds, fish and turtles that feed at the surface of the water and mistake floating debris for food.

Pieces of plastic, metal, and glass can be mistaken for the food fish eat. There are policies that are being put into place to help preserve the ocean and the life below water.

The goal of integrated coastal zone management ICZM is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems.

Over-building, driven by powerful market forces as well as poverty among some sectors of the population, and destructive exploitation contribute to the decline of ocean and coastal resources.

Some of these practices include: Develop sustainable fisheries practices, ensure sustainable mariculture techniques and practices, sustainable management of shipping, and promote sustainable tourism practices.

Tourist are not going to be used to living in a different style compared to their own country. Practices such as: provide sewage treatment facilities for all tourist areas, determine carrying capacity of the environment prior to planning tourism activities, provide alternative types of tourist activities can help to get desired results such as the development of alternative tourism which will reduce the current pressure on resources that support traditional tourism activities.

Instead of using tourist fees they would call them environmental fees. This study aims to inform the relevant stakeholders of the feasibility of implementing environmental fees as well as the likely impact of such revenue generating instruments on the current tourist visitation rates to the island.

The results show that tourists have a high consumer surplus associated with a vacation in Jamaica, and have a significantly lower willingness to pay for a tourism tax when compared to an environmental tax.

The findings of the study show that the "label" of the tax and as well as the respondent's awareness of the institutional mechanisms for environmental protection and tourism are important to their decision framework.

A tax high enough to fund for environmental management and protection but low enough to continue to bring tourist to Jamaica. Jamaica's diverse ethnic roots are reflected in the national motto 'Out of Many One People'.

Most of the population of 2,, July est. The Jamaican Maroons of Accompong and other settlements are the descendants of African slaves who fled the plantations for the interior where they set up their own autonomous communities.

Asians form the second-largest group and include Indo-Jamaicans and Chinese Jamaicans. Prominent Indian Jamaicans include jockey Shaun Bridgmohan , who was the first Jamaican in the Kentucky Derby , NBC Nightly News journalist Lester Holt , and Miss Jamaica World and Miss Universe winner Yendi Phillips.

The southwestern parish of Westmoreland is famous for its large population of Indo-Jamaicans. Prominent descendants of this group include Canadian billionaire investor Michael Lee-Chin , supermodels Naomi Campbell and Tyson Beckford , and VP Records founder Vincent "Randy" Chin.

There are about 20, Jamaicans who have Lebanese and Syrian ancestry. Eventually their descendants became very successful politicians and businessmen.

Notable Jamaicans from this group include former Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga , Jamaican politician and former Miss World Lisa Hanna , Jamaican politicians Edward Zacca and Shahine Robinson , and hotelier Abraham Elias Issa.

In , Charles Ellis, 1st Baron Seaford gave acres of his 10, acre estate in Westmoreland for the Seaford Town German settlement.

Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent. The first wave of English immigrants arrived to the island after conquering the Spanish, and they have historically been the dominant group.

Prominent descendants from this group include former American Governor of New York David Paterson , Sandals Hotels owner Gordon Butch Stewart , United States Presidential Advisor and "mother" of the Pell Grant Lois Rice , and former United States National Security Advisor and Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice.

The first Irish immigrants came to Jamaica in the s as war prisoners and later, indentured labour. Their descendants include two of Jamaica's National Heroes : Prime Ministers Michael Manley and Alexander Bustamante.

Along with the English and the Irish , the Scots are another group that has made a significant impact on the island. According to the Scotland Herald newspaper , Jamaica has more people using the Campbell surnames than the population of Scotland itself, and it also has the highest percentage of Scottish surnames outside of Scotland.

Later, they would be followed by ambitious businessmen who spent time between their great country estates in Scotland and the island.

As a result, many of the slave owning plantations on the island were owned by Scottish men, and thus a large number of mixed-race Jamaicans can claim Scottish ancestry.

High immigration from Scotland continued until well after independence. There is also a significant Portuguese Jamaican population that is predominantly of Sephardic Jewish heritage; they are primarily located in the Saint Elizabeth Parish in southwest Jamaica [ citation needed ].

The first Jews arrived as explorers from Spain in the 15th century after being forced to convert to Christianity or face death. A small number of them became slave owners and even famous pirates.

During the Holocaust Jamaica became a refuge for Jews fleeing persecution in Europe. In recent years immigration has increased, coming mainly from China , Haiti , Cuba , Colombia , and Latin America ; 20, Latin Americans reside in Jamaica.

Rollins , fashion designer Vanessa Noel , investor Guy Stuart, Edward and Patricia Falkenberg, and iHeart Media CEO Bob Pittman , all of whom hold annual charity events to support the island.

Jamaica is regarded as a bilingual country, with two major languages in use by the population. However, the primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois or Patwa.

The two exist in a dialect continuum, with speakers using a different register of speech depending on context and whom they are speaking to.

Additionally, some Jamaicans use one or more of Jamaican Sign Language JSL , American Sign Language ASL or the indigenous Jamaican Country Sign Language Konchri Sain.

Many Jamaicans have emigrated to other countries, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. In the case of the United States, about 20, Jamaicans per year are granted permanent residence.

It was estimated in that up to 2. Jamaicans in the United Kingdom number an estimated , making them by far the country's largest African-Caribbean group.

Large-scale migration from Jamaica to the UK occurred primarily in the s and s when the country was still under British rule. Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities.

A notable though much smaller group of emigrants are Jamaicans in Ethiopia. These are mostly Rastafarians, in whose theological worldview Africa is the promised land, or 'Zion', or more specifically Ethiopia, due to reverence in which former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is held.

When Jamaica gained independence in , the murder rate was 3. Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates.

However, there were 1, reported murders in and 1, in Many Jamaicans are hostile towards LGBT and intersex people, [] [] [] and mob attacks against gay people have been reported.

Christianity is the largest religion practised in Jamaica. The Rastafari movement has 29, adherents, according to the census, with 25, Rastafarian males and 3, Rastafarian females.

Various faiths and traditional religious practices derived from Africa are practised on the island, notably Kumina , Convince , Myal and Obeah.

There is also a small population of about Jews , who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative. Originally built in , it is the official and only Jewish place of worship left on the island.

The once abundant Jewish population has voluntarily converted to Christianity over time. Other small groups include Muslims , who claim 5, adherents.

In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August.

People of all religions attend the event, showing mutual respect. Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae , ska , mento , rocksteady , dub , and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban recording industry.

Some rappers, such as The Notorious B. Bob Marley is probably the best known Jamaican musician; with his band The Wailers he had a string of hits in s—70s, popularising reggae internationally and going on to sell millions of records.

Bands that came from Jamaica include Black Uhuru , Third World Band , Inner Circle , Chalice Reggae Band , Culture , Fab Five and Morgan Heritage.

The journalist and author H. The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. He was named Honorary President of the Jamaican Press Association; he worked throughout his professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry.

Roger Mais — , a journalist, poet, and playwright wrote many short stories, plays, and novels, including The Hills Were Joyful Together , Brother Man , and Black Lightning Ian Fleming — , who had a home in Jamaica where he spent considerable time, repeatedly used the island as a setting in his James Bond novels, including Live and Let Die , Doctor No , " For Your Eyes Only ", The Man with the Golden Gun , and Octopussy and The Living Daylights.

So far, the only James Bond film adaptation to have been set in Jamaica is Doctor No. Filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and Let Die took place in Jamaica.

Marlon James , novelist has published three novels: John Crow's Devil , The Book of Night Women and A Brief History of Seven Killings , winner of the Man Booker Prize.

Jamaica has a history in the film industry dating from the early s. A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is presented in the s musical crime film The Harder They Come , starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated and psychopathic reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree.

Jamaica is also often used as a filming location, such as the James Bond film Dr. No , Cocktail starring Tom Cruise , and the Disney comedy Cool Runnings , which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics.

The island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice , curries and rice and peas which is integral to Jamaican cuisine.

Die Engländer brachten das europäische Theater nach Jamaika. Die erste Spielstätte wurde vermutlich in Spanish Town errichtet, weitere folgten in Port Royal und später in Kingston.

Aufgeführt wurden Werke englischer Autoren. Jahrhunderts auch Sklaven in abgetrennten Bereichen. Die afrikanischen und indianischen Traditionen wurden unterdrückt, nur zu einzelnen Anlässen waren Vorführungen erlaubt.

Marcus Garvey schrieb Stücke, die die breite Bevölkerung ansprachen. Er gründete mit Edelweiss Park ein Kulturzentrum, in dem zahlreiche Stücke mit afrikanischem Hintergrund aufgeführt wurden.

Im Unterschied zur herkömmlichen Pantomime gibt es hier Dialoge, meist in Patois, die musikalisch hinterlegt sind. Teilweise werden Passagen improvisiert oder das Publikum in Szenen eingebunden.

Grundsätzlich kann alles Thema einer Aufführung sein, besonders beliebt sind aber Aufführungen zum Anansi -Thema.

In den er und er Jahren waren die Theater gut besucht und lockten Zuschauer auf der ganzen Insel an. Die meisten Spielstätten befinden sich in Kingston, darunter auch das Jamaican Theatre mit Sitzplätzen und das gegründete Ward Theatre.

Heute leidet das Theater unter der schlechten wirtschaftlichen Situation. Auf der Insel ist es schwer, genügend Zuschauer zu finden, um professionelle Vorstellungen auf die Beine stellen zu können.

Die meisten Beteiligten arbeiten nebenbei in einem anderen Beruf. Besonders das Ward Theatre leidet unter finanziellen Engpässen und ist dringend renovierungsbedürftig.

Der Staat unterstützt Schauspieler über das Institute of Jamaica und die University of the Westindies. Wie in praktisch allen anderen kulturellen Bereichen dauerte es bis ins Jahrhundert, bis sich auf Jamaika eine eigenständige Kunstszene entwickelt hat.

Edna Manley , die Frau Norman Manleys, war die erste, die in ihren Statuen und Bildern afrikanische Traditionen aufgriff.

Als ihr wichtigstes Werk gilt die Statue Negro Aroused, deren Nachbildung aus Bronze heute in Kingston steht und im Stil afrikanischer Künstler einen sich erhebenden Mann zeigt.

Manley gründete am Institute of Jamaica IOJ das erste Junior Center mit dem Ziel, junge Künstler zu fördern. Seit besteht ein zweites Zentrum in Portmore.

Beide werden über das IOJ vom Staat und durch Spenden finanziert. Nach Manley ist auch das Edna Manley College of Visual And Performing Arts benannt, an dem in verschiedenen künstlerischen Bereichen Abschlüsse erworben werden können.

Ein Dokumentationszentrum für die Bildende Kunst ist die National Gallery of Jamaica in Kingston. Sie ist als Tochterorganisation Teil des IOJ.

Zu den bekanntesten Malern zählen Barrington Watson , Eugene Hyde und Karl Parboosingh. Alle drei wurden im Ausland ausgebildet und malten expressionistisch.

Im Gegensatz dazu orientierten sich John Dunkley — an afrikanischen Traditionen, genauso wie seit den er Jahren Robert Cookhorn genannt Omari Ra , Douglas Wallace genannt Khalfani Ra und Valentine Fariclough genannt Tehuti Ra.

Die aus Afrika stammenden Künstlernamen sollen die Verbundenheit zu diesem Kontinent unterstreichen. Neben der Malerei fertigen zahlreiche Künstler Holz- oder Steinfiguren nach afrikanischer Tradition.

Motive sind vor allem Tiere, darunter die Spinne Anansi. Die Produktion dieser Werke ist teilweise industrialisiert, um den Touristenmarkt zu bedienen.

Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegt Jamaika Platz 8 von Ländern.

Die wichtigsten landesweiten Sender sind CVM und Television Jamaica. Dazu kommen Spartensender wie Reggae Sun Television und Hype TV, die vor allem Musik übertragen.

Zusätzlich können viele nordamerikanische und britische Sender über Satellit empfangen werden. Die BBC besitzt auch eine eigene Sendelizenz für terrestrische Übertragungen.

Einige Sender werden zusätzlich über das Internet verbreitet. Der erste Sender erhielt seine Lizenz bereits Heute verfügen 19 Unternehmen und Organisationen über eine Sendeerlaubnis.

Der Staat zog sich seit Ende der er Jahre aus dem Medienbereich weitgehend zurück und nur ein Radiosender verblieb in öffentlicher Hand.

Trotz der weiten Verbreitung von Fernsehen und Radio sind Tageszeitungen nach wie vor die wichtigste Informationsquelle für die Bevölkerung.

Vier Zeitungen erreichen eine Auflage von mehr als Der Daily Gleaner wurde gegründet und ist die älteste noch existierende Zeitung der Karibik.

Die vielfältige Landschaft Jamaikas wird seit den er Jahren von ausländischen Produktionen als Drehort verwendet, zum Beispiel für die James-Bond -Filme Leben und sterben lassen und James Bond jagt Dr.

Zur Entwicklung einer landeseigenen Filmindustrie fehlten die finanziellen Mittel. Seit wird das Werk als Musical in London aufgeführt.

In der Folge wählten zahlreiche weitere Filme das Thema Musik. Der wohl bekannteste Schauspieler Jamaikas ist Paul Campbell , der vor allem mit seinen Rollen im Musikfilm Dancehall Queen und in dem kommerziell erfolgreichen Polizeifilm Third World Cop mitwirkte.

Die gegründete Jamaica Film Commission soll im Auftrag der Regierung Investoren suchen und Projekte koordinieren.

Die jamaikanische Küche ist sehr vielfältig und von afrikanischen, europäischen und asiatischen Einflüssen geprägt.

Sie ist bekannt für ihre scharfen Saucen und würzige Speisen. Es wird vor allem lokal angebautes Obst und Gemüse sowie Geflügel jerk chicken und Salzwasserfisch verwendet.

Auf Festen wird oft ein Curry aus Ziegenfleisch curried goat angeboten. Eine sehr verbreitete Frucht ist die der Akee ackee tree. Die Rastafari, die meist den Konsum von Schweinefleisch und Alkohol ablehnen, pflegen eine eigene Küche.

Traditionell werden auf Jamaika verschiedene Spirituosen hergestellt, vor allem auf der Basis von Rum. Eine der weltweit bekanntesten Marken ist Captain Morgan , der zu den weltweit meistverkauften Rummarken gehört.

Sehr beliebt ist auch das jamaikanische Lagerbier , wie das Red Stripe, das von zwei Brauereien auf der Insel hergestellt wird.

Der seit einigen Jahren verstärkt in den Blue Mountains angebaute Kaffee bleibt teilweise im Land und wird genau wie Tee sowohl zu Mischgetränken verarbeitet als auch direkt getrunken.

Die am weitesten verbreitete Sportart in Jamaika ist Cricket. Es kam mit den Briten auf die Insel und verbreitete sich ab dem Ende des Jahrhunderts unter der Bevölkerung.

Diese Erfolge in einer Sportart, die ursprünglich von den Kolonialherren dominiert wurde, trugen zur Bildung des Nationalbewusstseins der Jamaikaner bei.

Auf internationaler Ebene tritt Jamaika zusammen mit anderen Karibikstaaten im West Indies Cricket Team auf. Bei den Olympischen Sommerspielen in Helsinki gewann die 4-malMeter-Staffel Gold gegen die favorisierten US-Amerikaner.

Dazu kam noch eine weitere Goldmedaille über Meter und drei Silbermedaillen. Die beteiligten Sportler werden auf Jamaika heute noch als Helden verehrt.

Gerade die Läufer konnten sich bei Olympia und den Commonwealth Games immer wieder durchsetzen. Bei den Commonwealth Games belegte das Land den 7.

Platz mit zehn Goldmedaillen, bei den Olympischen Sommerspielen gewann Veronica Campbell die Goldmedaillen im Meter-Lauf, ebenso war die 4-malMeter-Staffel der Frauen erfolgreich.

Bei beiden Veranstaltungen war Jamaika, gemessen an der Einwohnerzahl, eines der erfolgreichsten Länder. Jamaikanische Läufer verbesserten immer wieder Weltrekorde, zuletzt Usain Bolt über und Meter.

Nach der bisher einzigen erfolgreichen Qualifikation für die Endrunde schied die Mannschaft nach zwei Niederlagen und einem Sieg aus.

Die jamaikanische Bobmannschaft erlangte Berühmtheit, als sie an den Olympischen Winterspielen in Calgary teilnahm. Der Film Cool Runnings erzählt die Geschichte.

Jamaica Jamaika. Monatliche Durchschnittstemperaturen und -niederschläge für Kingston. Quelle: WMO.

Siehe auch : Liste der Städte in Jamaika. Siehe auch : Agrarstrukturen in Lateinamerika. Dieser Artikel oder nachfolgende Abschnitt ist nicht hinreichend mit Belegen beispielsweise Einzelnachweisen ausgestattet.

Angaben ohne ausreichenden Beleg könnten demnächst entfernt werden. Bitte hilf Wikipedia, indem du die Angaben recherchierst und gute Belege einfügst.

Siehe auch : Liste der olympischen Medaillengewinner aus Jamaika. Abgerufen am Dezember Google Inc.

Januar In: Entwicklungsprogramm der Vereinten Nationen Hrsg. United Nations Development Programme, New York , ISBN , S. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Nr.

Oktober , Briefe an die Herausgeber, Seite 6. Iturralde-Vinent, R. MacPhee: Paleogeography of the Caribbean region: implications for Cenozoic biogeography.

In: Bull. Memento vom September im Internet Archive Jamaican Observer , 8. Dezember englisch. PDF UN, abgerufen am September englisch. Februar pewglobal.

September ]. In: www. Juli , abgerufen am Juli ABC-CLIO Inc. In: data. November , abgerufen am 3. Oktober englisch.

Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, , S. August , abgerufen am 1. September Februar im Internet Archive Kenneth Anthony in einem Vortrag zu Vorurteilen gegenüber dem CCJ, abgerufen am September Abgerufen am Juni Al Jazeera — Website.

Abgerufen am 3. November im Internet Archive englisch abgerufen am Dezember ; S. Juli amerikanisches Englisch. Juli englisch.

August abgerufen am PDF Reporter ohne Grenzen, April , abgerufen am 1. Mai Politische Gliederung Nordamerikas. Mitgliedstaaten des Commonwealth of Nations.

Mitgliedstaaten der Organisation Amerikanischer Staaten OAS. Mitgliedstaaten der Karibischen Gemeinschaft CARICOM. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Belege fehlen.

Navigationsmenü Meine Werkzeuge Nicht angemeldet Diskussionsseite Beiträge Benutzerkonto erstellen Anmelden.

Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

Artikel verbessern Neuen Artikel anlegen Autorenportal Hilfe Letzte Änderungen Kontakt Spenden. Buch erstellen Als PDF herunterladen Druckversion.

Commons Wikinews Wikisource Wikivoyage. Staats- und Regierungsform. Premierminister Andrew Holness. USD Index der menschlichen Entwicklung.

August vom Vereinigten Königreich. Jamaica, Land We Love. ISO Black River. Montego Bay. May Pen. Spanish Town. Port Maria. Port Antonio.

Morant Bay. Blue Mountain Peak. Niederschlag mm. Regentage d. Auswanderer in die USA [14]. Jamaica Labour Party. Anzahl der Wahlberechtigten und Wahlbeteiligung.

Cornwall County. Saint Elizabeth Parish. Middlesex County. Saint Catherine Parish. Surrey County. Kingston Parish [39] [40].

Saint Andrew Parish [39]. Dieser Artikel wurde am Als VIP-Mitglied bekommen Sie doppelte Kontaktchancen zum absoluten Sonderpreis: Mit einer einzigen Anmeldung nutzen Sie unsere beiden.

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Mehr Informationen. Aastal hõivasid saare inglased. Briti asumaaks oleku esimese aasta järel sai Jamaicast maailma suurim suhkru eksportija. See sai võimalikuks tänu suure hulga orja tööjõu sissetoomisele Aafrikast.

Aastal keelustati saarel ametlikult orjapidamine , sest mustanahaliste suhtarv oli muutunud suureks: iga valge inimese kohta saarel tuli ligi 20 mustanahalist.

Mustanahalised tõstsid orjuse vastu mässu. Aastate pikku muutus Jamaica üha Suurbritanniast sõltumatumaks. Jamaica eraldus föderatsioonist Majanduse allakäik Jamaica on konstitutsioonilise monarhiaga riik.

Riigipea on Suurbritannia monarh praegu Elizabeth II. Tema võim on põhiliselt sümboolne. Monarhi esindab saarel kindralkuberner , kellel on riigipea roll.

Ajalugu. Riigi nimi pärineb aravakkidelt, kes asusid saarele elama umbes aastal Xamayca tähendas 'puu- ja veemaad'.. Jamaica avastas eurooplaste jaoks Christoph Kolumbus karavokiris.com sai sellest Hispaania karavokiris.comus kasutas saart oma perekonna eravaldusena. Aastal hõivasid saare karavokiris.com asumaaks oleku esimese aasta järel sai Jamaicast maailma suurim . A legjobb programok - Jamaica, Karib-térség. Olvasson utazói értékeléseket és tekintse meg a fényképeket Jamaica legjobb látnivalóiról a Tripadvisoron. Jamaika iku nagara pulo ing karavokiris.com krajané ya iku karavokiris.com iki sing ndunungi kurang luwih lan jembaré ana km². Pamérangan administratif. Jamaika dipérang dadi 3 county (kaya déné kabupatèn) lan 14 lingkungan (parish). County Surrey ing sisih wétan, dumadi saka lingkungan-lingkungan. Kingston (kutha krajan nagara). Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Keno 6 Richtige Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia. Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original on 12 March Institute for Advanced Journalism Studies. Dicapai pada 1 April Anton St. Työttömyysaste oli 8,0 Rama Culiness, kun se oli lokakuussa ollut 10,4 prosenttia. Valtio on luvulta lähtien vähentynyt rooliaan, ja talous on liberalisoitunut.

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