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The ground forces consisted of 93 Delta soldiers to assault the embassy and a man special forces assault team from Detachment "A" Berlin Brigade to assault the Ministry of Foreign Affairs where three further hostages were being held.
A third group of 12 Rangers were to act as the roadblock team at the Desert One landing area. Rangers were also tasked with taking and holding the Manzariyeh Air Base near Tehran to provide the springboard for escape from Iran.
In addition, the CIA had prepared an in-country team of 15 Iranian and American Persian -speakers, most of whom would act as truck drivers. They would be refuelled by Air Force KC tankers en route.
Desert One would be secured by a protection force and once secured, a refueling area would be established for the helicopters with approximately 6, US gallons 22, L of jet fuel being made available from collapsible fuel bladders carried in the Cs.
Because it would be close to morning, the helicopters and ground forces would hide during the day at Desert Two.
The rescue operation would take place the second night. This assault team would assault the embassy and Foreign Affairs building, eliminate the guards, and rescue the hostages, with air support from Air Force AC gunships flying from Desert One.
The hostages and rescue team would then rendezvous with the helicopters which had flown from Desert Two to the nearby Amjadieh Stadium where the rescue teams and the freed hostages would board the helicopters.
With the Rangers holding the airport, the helicopters would bring everyone from the stadium to the Manzariyeh airbase, where the Cs would fly everyone back to an airbase in Egypt.
The eight helicopters would be destroyed before departure. For this operation, the aircraft bore special invasion stripe identification on their right wings.
This was necessary to distinguish support aircraft from Iranian F and F-4 aircraft purchased by from the US in the time of the Shah. Only the delivery of the soldiers, equipment and fuel by the C aircraft went according to plan.
The landing was made under blacked-out conditions using the improvised infrared landing light system installed by Carney on the airstrip, visible only through night vision goggles.
The heavily loaded Dragon 1 required four passes to determine that there were no obstructions on the airstrip [Note 4] and to align with the runway.
The second and third MCs landed using both runways and discharged the remainder of the Delta soldiers, after which Dragon 1 and 2 took off at to make room for the three ECs and the eight RHDs.
Dragon 1 and 2 were to return to base to allow the crews to prepare for the second-night operations. Soon after the first crews landed and began securing Desert One , a civilian Iranian bus with a driver and 43 passengers was stopped while traveling on the road, which now served as the runway for the aircraft.
The bus was forced to halt by the Rangers and the passengers were detained aboard Republic 3. The truck's passenger was killed, but the driver managed to escape in an accompanying pickup truck.
As the tanker truck was thought to be engaged in clandestine smuggling, the driver was not considered to pose a security threat to the mission.
While en route, RHDs Bluebeard 6 made an emergency landing in the desert, when a sensor indicated a cracked rotor blade.
Its crew was picked up by Bluebeard 8. The remaining helicopters ran into an unexpected weather phenomenon known as a haboob  an enormous, nearly opaque cloud of fine dust.
Bluebeard 5 flew into the haboob, but abandoned the mission and returned to the Nimitz when electrical problems disabled flight instruments and flying without visual references proved impossible.
The remaining six helicopters reached Desert One , 50 to 90 minutes behind schedule. Bluebeard 2 arrived last at Desert One at with a malfunctioning secondary hydraulic system, leaving only one hydraulic system to control the aircraft.
With only five fully serviceable helicopters now remaining to transport the men and equipment to Desert Two minimum of six aircraft was the planned mission's abort threshold , the various commanders reached a stalemate.
Senior helicopter pilot Seiffert refused to use unsafe Bluebeard 2 on the mission, while Beckwith field commander for ground forces refused to consider reducing his trained rescue team's size.
Kyle the field aviation commander , therefore, recommended to Vaught that the mission be aborted. The recommendation was passed on by satellite radio up to the President.
After two and a half hours on the ground, the presidential abort confirmation was received. Fuel consumption calculations showed that the extra 90 minutes idling on the ground waiting for the abort confirmation order had made fuel critical for one of the ECs.
When it became clear that only six helicopters would arrive at Desert One , Kyle had authorized the ECs to transfer 1, US gallons 3, L from the bladders to their own main fuel tanks, but Republic 4 had already expended all of its bladder fuel refueling three of the helicopters and had none to transfer.
To make it to the air tanker refueling track without running out of fuel, it had to leave immediately and was already loaded with part of the Delta team.
In addition, RH Bluebeard 4 needed additional fuel, requiring it to be moved to the opposite side of the road. To accomplish both actions, Bluebeard 3 piloted by Maj.
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The government broadcast alerts and 'all clear' messages over television to warn citizens during Scud attacks. On 29 January, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry.
Both sides suffered casualties, although Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces. Eleven Americans were killed in two separate friendly fire incidents, an additional 14 US airmen were killed when their AC gunship was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile, and two US soldiers were captured during the battle.
Saudi and Qatari forces had a total of 18 dead. Iraqi forces in Khafji had 60— dead and captured. The Battle of Khafji was an example of how air power could single-handedly hinder the advance of enemy ground forces.
Upon learning of Iraqi troop movements, coalition aircraft were diverted to attack an advancing column consisting of two armored divisions in battalion-sized units.
Precision stand-off attacks were conducted during the night and through to the next day. Iraqi vehicle losses included tanks, armored personnel carriers, and 89 mobile artillery pieces.
Some crews simply abandoned their vehicles upon realizing that they could be destroyed by guided bombs, stopping the divisions from massing for an organized attack on the town.
One Iraqi soldier, who had fought in the Iran—Iraq War, remarked that his brigade "had sustained more punishment from allied airpower in 30 minutes at Khafji than in eight years of fighting against Iran.
Task Force 1—41 was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February , and to conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February This joint effort would become known as Task Force Iron.
On 15 February 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector observing American forces.
They were engaged with artillery fire from 4—3 FA. For the next hour the Task Force fought several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units.
The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4—3 FA. Task Force Infantry was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February and conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February Around guns from multiple nations participated in the artillery barrage.
Over 14, rounds were fired during these missions. By the end of these raids Iraqi artillery assets had all but ceased to exist. One Iraqi unit that was totally destroyed during the preparation was the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division Artillery Group.
On 24 February the 1st Cavalry Division conducted a couple artillery missions against Iraqi artillery units.
Task Force Infantry was given the task of breaching Iraq's initial defensive positions along the Iraq—Saudi Arabia border.
These defensive positions were occupied by a brigade-sized element. A series of battles unfolded resulting in heavy Iraqi casualties and the Iraqis being removed from their defensive positions with many becoming prisoners of war.
Some escaped to be killed or captured by other coalition forces. The 1st Infantry Division's Task Force Infantry cleared four lanes simultaneously through an enemy fortified trench system while inflicting heavy casualties on Iraqi forces.
The ground campaign consisted of three or possibly four of the largest tank battles in American military history.
The US 3rd Armored Division destroyed approximately enemy combat vehicles during this particular encounter with Iraqi forces. US decoy attacks by air attacks and naval gunfire the night before Kuwait's liberation were designed to make the Iraqis believe the main coalition ground attack would focus on central Kuwait.
For months, American units in Saudi Arabia had been under almost constant Iraqi artillery fire, as well as threats from Scud missiles and chemical attacks.
They encountered trenches, barbed wire, and minefields. However, these positions were poorly defended, and were overrun in the first few hours.
Several tank battles took place, but otherwise coalition troops encountered minimal resistance, as most Iraqi troops surrendered.
The general pattern was that the Iraqis would put up a short fight before surrendering. However, Iraqi air defenses shot down nine US aircraft.
Meanwhile, forces from Arab states advanced into Kuwait from the east, encountering little resistance and suffering few casualties. Despite the successes of coalition forces, it was feared that the Iraqi Republican Guard would escape into Iraq before it could be destroyed.
It was decided to send British armored forces into Kuwait 15 hours ahead of schedule, and to send US forces after the Republican Guard.
The coalition advance was preceded by a heavy artillery and rocket barrage, after which , troops and 1, tanks began their advance. Iraqi forces in Kuwait counterattacked against US troops, acting on a direct order from Saddam Hussein himself.
Despite the intense combat, the Americans repulsed the Iraqis and continued to advance towards Kuwait City. Kuwaiti forces were tasked with liberating the city.
Iraqi troops offered only light resistance. The Kuwaitis quickly liberated the city despite losing one soldier and having one plane shot down.
However, an Iraqi unit at Kuwait International Airport appeared not to have received the message and fiercely resisted. US Marines had to fight for hours before securing the airport, after which Kuwait was declared secure.
After four days of fighting, Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait. As part of a scorched earth policy, they set fire to nearly oil wells and placed land mines around the wells to make extinguishing the fires more difficult.
The war's ground phase was officially designated Operation Desert Saber. These eight-man patrols landed behind Iraqi lines to gather intelligence on the movements of Scud mobile missile launchers, which could not be detected from the air, as they were hidden under bridges and camouflage netting during the day.
The operations were designed to prevent any possible Israeli intervention. Due to lack of sufficient ground cover to carry out their assignment, One Zero and Three Zero abandoned their operations, while Two Zero remained, and was later compromised, with only Sergeant Chris Ryan escaping to Syria.
Elements of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division of the US Army performed a direct attack into Iraq on 15 February , followed by one in force on 20 February that led directly through seven Iraqi divisions which were caught off guard.
It was a feint attack, designed to make the Iraqis think that a coalition invasion would take place from the south. The Iraqis fiercely resisted, and the Americans eventually withdrew as planned back into the Wadi Al-Batin.
Three US soldiers were killed and nine wounded, with one M2 Bradley IFV turret destroyed, but they had taken 40 prisoners and destroyed five tanks, and successfully deceived the Iraqis.
On 22 February , Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council.
The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, [ citation needed ] and gave 24 hours for Iraq to withdraw its forces.
On 23 February, fighting resulted in the capture of Iraqi soldiers. On 24 February, British and American armored forces crossed the Iraq—Kuwait border and entered Iraq in large numbers, taking hundreds of prisoners.
Iraqi resistance was light, and four Americans were killed. This movement's left flank was protected by the French Division Daguet.
The st Airborne Division conducted a combat air assault into enemy territory. The French force quickly overcame Iraq's 45th Infantry Division, suffering light casualties and taking a large number of prisoners, and took up blocking positions to prevent an Iraqi counterattack on the coalition's flank.
The movement's right flank was protected by the United Kingdom's 1st Armoured Division. Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the elite Republican Guard before it could escape.
The Iraqis resisted fiercely from dug-in positions and stationary vehicles, and even mounted armored charges.
Unlike many previous engagements, the destruction of the first Iraqi tanks did not result in a mass surrender. The Iraqis suffered massive losses and lost dozens of tanks and vehicles, while US casualties were comparatively low, with a single Bradley knocked out.
They took prisoners and inflicted heavy losses, defeating Iraq's 26th Infantry Division. A US soldier was killed by an Iraqi land mine, another five by friendly fire, and 30 wounded during the battle.
In nearly two days of some of the war's most intense fighting, the British destroyed 40 enemy tanks and captured a division commander. Meanwhile, US forces attacked the village of Al Busayyah , meeting fierce resistance.
The US force destroyed military hardware and took prisoners, while suffering no casualties. The missile attack killed 28 US military personnel.
The coalition's advance was much swifter than US generals had expected. On 26 February, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait, after they had set of its oil wells on fire.
A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq—Kuwait highway. Although they were retreating, this convoy was bombed so extensively by coalition air forces that it came to be known as the Highway of Death.
Thousands of Iraqi troops were killed. One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on 28 February, President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated.
In coalition-occupied Iraqi territory, a peace conference was held where a ceasefire agreement was negotiated and signed by both sides.
At the conference, Iraq was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure.
Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south. The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they would soon be liberated from Saddam.
However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising. These events later resulted in no-fly zones being established in northern and southern Iraq.
In Kuwait, the Emir was restored, and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over , people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians , because of PLO support of Saddam.
Yasser Arafat didn't apologize for his support of Iraq, but after his death, the Fatah under Mahmoud Abbas ' authority formally apologized in There was some criticism of the Bush administration, as they chose to allow Saddam to remain in power instead of pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government.
In their co-written book, A World Transformed , Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it.
I would guess if we had gone in there, we would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home.
And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional US casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the conflict, for the Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war.
And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam [Hussein] worth? And the answer is, not that damned many.
So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.
Kuwaiti democracy advocates had been calling for restoration of Parliament that the Emir had suspended in Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware, although they did not send direct military assistance.
This later became known as checkbook diplomacy. In addition, medical teams were deployed aboard a US hospital ship , and a naval clearance diving team took part in de-mining Kuwait's port facilities following the end of combat operations.
Australian forces experienced a number of incidents in the first number of weeks of the Desert Storm Campaign including the detection of significant air threats from Iraq as a part of the outer perimeter of Battle Force Zulu; the detection of free sea floating mines and assistance to the aircraft carrier USS Midway.
The Australians played a significant role in enforcing the sanctions put in place against Iraq following Kuwait's invasion.
Canada was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. Following the UN-authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF Hornet and CH Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war.
When the air war began, the CFs were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets.
This was the first time since the Korean War that Canada's military had participated in offensive combat operations. The only CF Hornet to record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy.
The second largest European contingent was from France, which committed 18, troops. France also deployed several combat aircraft and naval units.
The United Kingdom committed the largest contingent of any European state that participated in the war's combat operations. Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf.
The United Kingdom played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk where its forces destroyed over Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles.
Several SAS squadrons were deployed. A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot APFSDS round fired over 4, metres 2.
Over 1, Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages.
Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1, sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control.
This ultimately led to civilian casualties. To ensure the Iraqi army would be sufficiently weakened before launching the counter-invasion, the Coalition started a vicious aerial bombardment of Iraq as well as Iraqi forces in Kuwait.
The sustained air campaign from the Coalition targeted Iraqi air-defense systems, communications systems, government buildings, oil fields, and vital bridges and roads.
After just three days of the ground campaign, Kuwait was liberated and on February 27, , Coalition troops stopped attacking Iraqi forces after learning they were to comply with the original United Nations resolution.
April 6, , marked the day that Iraq accepted the terms of a cease-fire agreement and the First Gulf War formally ended.
Some of this payment was not monetary but service-related such as food and transport while United States troops were based in Saudi Arabia. Since United States forces represented almost three-quarters of the troops fighting the conflict, the country absorbed a lot of the initial costs.
General Norman Schwarzkopf was the hot-tempered commander tasked with driving Hussein out of Kuwait. The desert terrain is tough, the enemy is ruthless and White House orders are impossible.
Explore the story in Battle of Desert Storm. Large-scale damage assessment takes time, responded Morrison, therefore his department declined to sign up to a premature statement.
Later on, after careful assessment and consideration, Defence Intelligence Staff determined that the bombing had not been all that effective.
Within days of speaking out on the program, Morrison was informed by former New Labour cabinet minister Ann Taylor that he was to lose his job as Chief Investigator to the Intelligence and Security Committee.
The Duelfer Report concluded in that Iraq's WMD capability "was essentially destroyed in " following the end of sanctions. Some critics of the Clinton administration, including Republican members of Congress,  expressed concern over the timing of Operation Desert Fox.
House of Representatives was conducting the impeachment hearing of President Clinton. Clinton was impeached by the House on 19 December, the last day of the bombing campaign.
A few months earlier, similar criticism was levelled during Operation Infinite Reach , wherein missile strikes were ordered against suspected terrorist bases in Sudan and Afghanistan, on 20 August.
The missile strikes began three days after Clinton was called to testify before a grand jury during the Lewinsky scandal and his subsequent nationally televised address later that evening in which Clinton admitted having an inappropriate relationship.
ABC-TV announced to all stations that there would be a special report following Lewinsky's testimony before Congress, then the special report was pre-empted by the report of the missile attacks.
The combination of the timing of that attack and Operation Desert Fox led to accusations of a Wag the Dog situation. Other critics, such as former U.
Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , said the attacks did not go far enough: "I would be amazed if a three-day campaign made a decisive difference," Kissinger said just after the operation ended.
It doesn't make any significant difference because in six months to a year they will be back to where they are and we cannot keep repeating these attacks.
If Saddam is still there, if he's rearming, if the sanctions are lifted, we will have lost, no matter what spin we put on it.
It is speculated that there were dozens of Iraqi civilians killed by missiles that missed their targets, hundreds in the Iraqi military, and no U.
While the bombing was ongoing, the Vanguards of Conquest issued a communique to Islamist groups calling for attacks against the United States "for its arrogance" in bombing Iraq.
According to Charles Duelfer , after the bombing the Iraqi ambassador to the UN told him, "If we had known that was all you would do, we would have ended the inspections long ago.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.